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Manner of Articulation in English Phonetics Empty Manner of Articulation in English Phonetics

في الثلاثاء أكتوبر 02, 2012 7:03 pm

Manner of Articulation in English Phonetics
Manner of Articulation in English Phonetics







Voiceless
No vocal cord/fold vibration occurs during the sound, like French (or a softer version of English) /p/, /k/, /t/. Also like English /f/, /s/.
Aspirated
A voiceless sound with a strong puff of air (or /h/ sound) afterwards. As in English /p/, /k/, /t/ when these sounds occur at the begining of a word.
Voiced
The vocal cords/folds are vibrating, causing the individual sound of ones voice. Compare English /b/, /v/, /d/, /z/ with their voiceless counterparts.
Ejective
The glottis is closed during the production of the consonant, permitting no air to leave the lungs. The result is that the consonant as a glottal stop-like gap before and after the sound. Used to describe stops or affricates.
Glottalised
Ejective when referring to fricatives or resonants. These sounds (especially the resonants) end up sounded with a creaky voice.
Tense (Fortis) / Lax (Lenis)
Tense and lax are somewhat arbitrarily used descriptions of sounds. Generally speaking, tense means the sound is pronounced with more constricted mouth and tongue muscles, lax more weakly constricted. For example, an English long /ā/ is tense, while the short /ĕ/ is lax (both are mid front vowels).

Fortis and lenis are similar to tense and lax: Fortis is more a more strongly exploded sound, and lenis is weaker. English /t/ is fortis, while the French /t/ is lenis.

These terms are useful as in some languages, the idea of voiceless and voiced are not entirely appropriate. So in Korean, ‹k› is a fortis-tense stop, ‹g› is a lenis-lax stop, and ‹kk› is a lenis-tense stop. In Korean, voicing of stops depends on the position of the sound in the word, not on an inherant quality of the consonant.
Geminate
The term used to describe long consonants. Compare English ‘good-day’ with ‘today’. In the first word, the /d/ is a geminate (held longer).
Stop
A sound which completely blocks of air through the mouth, such as English /p/, /t/, /k/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/. The first three are oral stops (or obstruents), the latter three are nasal stops. On these pages oral stops will be labelled simply as “Stop”, whereas nasal stops will be called “Nasals”.
Nasal
c.f. Stop
Fricative

The air is only partially blocked off, so that friction occurs, like English /f/, /s/, /h/. Lateral fricatives occur very commonly in North American languages, as in Welsh ‹ll›.
Approximate
The air is even less restricted than a fricative, meaning the tongue is only shaping the mouth cavity to produce a sound. English /l/, /r/, /w/, and /y/ are approximates. Notice that there is a fine line between approximates and vowels, compare /y/ with /i/, as in “year”, and whether a sound is an approximate or a vowel often depends more on the phonological grammar of the language than the phonetics.
Resonant
A useful term which groups approximates, nasal stops, and other sounds which grammatically share characteristics.







Manner of Articulation in English Phonetics Ouuuso11



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