الاخطاء العشرون الاكثر شيوعا في كتابة اللغة الانجليزية Top Twenty Specific Problems الاخطاء العشرون الاكثر شيوعا في كتابة اللغة الانجليزية Top Twenty Specific Problems
The following links deal with the twenty most common problems that I have found in grading student papers. Students will laugh if I mention these problems in class, but almost every student paper will include at least one of these problems — and I’ve seen more than a few papers and exams that make over half of these mistakes
It’s” versus “Its .1. “”
(consistently the #1 problem in student papers)
It’s: A contraction, meaning “it is” (as in “It’s time for dinner”)
Its: A possessive (as in “The dog was wagging its tail”)
Affect (verb): “To influence” (as in “President Clinton hoped to affect the outcome of the Russian elections”)
Effect (verb): “To bring about” (as in “President Clinton hoped to effect a change in Russian policies”)
Effect (noun): “Consequence”, “result” (as in “Every cause should have at least one effect“)
Affect (noun): Feeling, affection; the conscious subjective aspect of an emotion considered apart from bodily changes (pronounced AF-fect; this is probably NOT the word that you mean to use in international relations)
That: A defining, or restrictive, pronoun. “That” is used to indicate which object is being discussed, and should not follow a comma (as in “The car that is parked in the garage is red”)
Which: A nondefining, or nonrestrictive, pronoun. “Which” adds some new detail about a specific object that has already been mentioned, and should follow a comma (as in “My new car, which is red, is parked in the garage”)
Who: A personal pronoun. “Who” should be used in place of “that” or “which” in discussing a person (as in “The student who did the most work got an A for the course” or “Bob, who did more work than his classmates, got an A for the course”)
i.e.: “That is,” from the Latin “id est” (as in “The goal of this web page – i.e., improving your writing skills – is…”)
etc.: “And so forth” / “and others of the same kind,” from the Latin “et cetera.” See also the UVIC Writer’s Guide
et al.: “And others,” from the Latin “et alii” [masc.], “et aliae” [fem.], or “et alia” [neutral] (as in “Singer, et al., found an important difference between the 19th and 20th centuries”).
18. “Now,” “Know,” and “No“
Now: Refers to the present time (as in “What we need now is a good rainstorm”)
Know: A verb, reflecting recognition or understanding (as in “I know everything there is to know about this subject”)
No: The opposite of yes (as in “No, you can’t eat that last cookie!”)
19. “Border” versus “Boarder“
Border: In international relations, the line on a map that separates two or more geographic units.
Boarder: “One who boards,” such as someone who is paying for meals and lodging or someone whose job involves going aboard seagoing vessels.
So the correct international relations term is “border,” as in the “Canadian border.” A “Canadian boarder” refers to someone from the Great White North who is renting a room, rather than a line on a map separating Canada from Minnesota or New York.
20. “Block” versus “Bloc“
Bloc: In international relations, a combination of individuals, groups, or countries united by treaty or sharing a common purpose.
So the correct international relations term is “bloc,” as in the “Western bloc” and “Soviet bloc” in the Cold War. A “Soviet block” would be a small cube of wood with a hammer and sickle or pictures of Lenin (making for a very unusual child’s toy