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Francis Bacon Biography Empty Francis Bacon Biography

السبت يوليو 17, 2010 7:05 pm

Francis Bacon Biography Francis-bacon




Bacon, Francis (philosopher) (1561-1626), English philosopher and
statesman, one of the pioneers of modern scientific thought.


Bacon was born on January 22, 1561, at York House, in the Strand,
London, and educated at Trinity College, University of Cambridge.
Elected to the House of Commons in 1584, he served until 1614. He wrote
letters of sound advice to Elizabeth I, queen of England, but his
suggestions were never implemented, and he completely lost favor with
the queen in 1593, when he opposed a bill for a royal subsidy. He
regained the respect of the court, however, with the accession of James I
to the English throne in 1603. Bacon proposed schemes for the union of
England and Scotland and recommended measures for dealing with Roman
Catholics. For these efforts he was knighted on July 23, 1603, was made a
commissioner for the union of Scotland and England, and was given a
pension in 1604. His Advancement of Learning was published and presented
to the king in 1605. Two years later he was appointed solicitor
general.


In the last session of the first Parliament held (February 1611) under
James I, the differences between Crown and Commons grew critical, and
Bacon took the role of mediator, despite his distrust of James's chief
minister, Robert Cecil, 1st earl of Salisbury. On Salisbury's death in
1612,III Works


Bacon's writings fall into three categories: philosophical, purely
literary, and professional. The best of his philosophical works are The
Advancement of Learning (1605), a review in English of the state of
knowledge in his own time, and Novum Organum; or, Indications Respecting
the Interpretation of Nature (1620).


Bacon's philosophy emphasized the belief that people are the servants
and interpreters of nature, that truth is not derived from authority,
and that knowledge is the fruit of experience. Bacon is generally
credited with having contributed to logic the method known as ampliative
inference, a technique of inductive reasoning (see Induction). Previous
logicians had practiced induction by simple enumeration, that is,
drawing general conclusions from particular data. Bacon's method was to
infer by use of analogy, from the characteristics or properties of the
larger group to which that datum belonged, leaving to later experience
the correction of evident errors. Because it added significantly to the
improvement of scientific hypotheses, this method was a fundamental
advancement of the scientific method.


Bacon's Novum Organum successfully influenced the acceptance of accurate
observation and experimentation in science. In it he maintained that
all prejudices and preconceived attitudes, which he called idols, must
be abandoned, whether they be the common property of the race due to
common modes of thought (�idols of the tribe�), or the peculiar
possession of the individual (�idols of the cave�); whether they arise
from too great a dependence on language (�idols of the marketplace�), or
from tradition (�idols of the theater�). The principles laid down in
the Novum Organum had an important influence on the subsequent
development of empiricist thought (see Empiricism).


Bacon's Essays, his chief contributions to literature, were published at
various times between 1597 and 1625. His History of Henry VII (1622)
shows his abilities in scholarly research. In his fanciful New Atlantis
Bacon suggested the formation of scientific academies. Bacon's
professional works include Maxims of the Law (1630), Reading on the
Statute of Uses (1642), pleadings in law cases, and speeches in
Parliament. The theory that Bacon, rather than an obscure actor from
Stratford-upon-Avon, is the true author of William Shakespeare's plays
has been thoroughly discredite





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Francis Bacon Biography Empty رد: Francis Bacon Biography

الجمعة مارس 30, 2012 4:18 am

Francis Bacon Biography 1431078303




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Francis Bacon Biography Empty رد: Francis Bacon Biography

الإثنين أكتوبر 08, 2012 10:51 pm

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