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English phonetics
English phonetics
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Linguistics in English Phonetics Empty Linguistics in English Phonetics

الأربعاء ديسمبر 07, 2016 4:36 am

Linguistics in English Phonetics
Linguistics : Linguistics is the scientific study of language. Language means either human language or specific language.

Linguistics description has its main characteristics of a scientific approach:

1) It must be objective ( not subjective)
2) It must be consistent ( using same methodology, terms and symbols)
3) It must be explicit ( clear)
4) It must be comprehensive ( complete)
5) It should be based on concrete evidence(proof)

Online resources on linguistics
1) Cambridge Dictionaries Online
2) Wikipedia Encyclopedia


Two broad approaches are often recognized in the field of linguistics:

1) General or theoretical linguistics
2) Descriptive linguistics

General or theoretical linguistics: The language system is made up of different levels that reflect the different components of human language.

a) Sounds ( or phonemes ) combine together to produce smallest units of meaning ( m + a + n = man ). These units are called morphemes.
b) Morphemes combine together to produce words; e.g. class + room = classroom.
c) Words combine to form phrases and sentences: e.g. Bill + likes + Susan = Bill likes Susan or vice versa.

Linguistics structures are pairings ( from the noun pair ) of meaning and form.

1) Phonetics : the study of the physical properties of speech production and perception by human beings.

2) Phonology : the study of sounds as units contributing to meaning.
At the phonological level linguistics list and describe the significant sounds ( or phonemes ) and show how they combine together to produce smallest units of meaning, called morphemes
(m + a + n = man).

3) Morphology : the study of internal structures of words and how they can be modified. At the morphological level linguistics describe:
how minimal units of meaning ( morphemes ) combine with each other to form words e.g. class + room = classroom.
• how minimal units of meaning ( morphemes) combine with suffixes and prefixes, ( e.g. un + kind + ness = unkindness ), and
• what combinations are possible and which are not. e.g.( un + kind = unkind) which is possible, whereas, (un + polite = unpolite ) is not possible.

4) Syntax is the study of how words combine to form acceptable and grammatical sentences. At the syntactic level linguistics show :

• how words are arranged in phrases ( e.g. book + new + a = a new book ),
• how phrases combine together to produce sentences; e.g.
My sister + has bought + a new book =
My sister has bought a new book,

• which sentences are possible and acceptable and which are not : e.g. My sister has bought a new book
is both grammatical and acceptable.


5) Semantics: the study of the meanings of words ( lexical meaning) and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences.

6) Discourse : the study of units beyond the sentence boundary.


Descriptive Linguistics:

• It studies how language is spoken by a group of people in a speech community.
• Such studies fall within the overall framework of descriptive linguistics are phonetics, phonology, syntax and discourse.


Other branches / divisions of linguistics

1) Anthropological linguistics : study of the relations between language and culture.

2) Applied linguistics : study of the applications of linguistics knowledge to areas such as foreign language teaching, speech therapy, dictionary making, and translation.


3) Comparative linguistics (comparative philology ) : a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish they are historically related.

4) Corpus linguistics : study of language as expressed in samples ( corpora ) or real world.


5) Historical linguistics: study of language change.

6) Psycholinguistics or psychology of language : study of the psychological factors that enable humans to learn, use, and understand language.

7) Sociolinguistics: study of language use in society.



Speech pathology: study of disorders that affect a person's speech, language, voice disorders, as well as corrective treatment of these disorders . eg. Lisping and stuttering.

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Linguistics in English Phonetics Empty رد: Linguistics in English Phonetics

الأحد ديسمبر 18, 2016 9:58 pm

Great, thanks


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