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مقال بعنوان Car acciden باللغة الانجليزيةt Empty مقال بعنوان Car acciden باللغة الانجليزيةt

في الأحد فبراير 05, 2012 8:32 pm


Car accident

A car accident is an incident during
which an automobile either departs from regular pathway into a ditch, or collides with anything that causes damage to the automobile, including other automobiles, telephone poles, buildings, and trees. Sometimes a car accident may also refer to an automobile striking a human or animal. Car accidents — also called road traffic accidents (RTAs), traffic collisions, auto accidents, road accidents, personal injury collisions, motor vehicle accidents, and crashes — kill an estimated 1.2 million
people worldwide each year, and injure about forty times this number
(WHO, 2004). The term "accident" is considered an inappropriate word by
some, as reliable sources estimate that upwards of 90% are the
result of driver negligence. In the UK the Department of Transport
publish road deaths in each type of vehicle. These statistics are
available as "Risk of injury measured by percentage of drivers injured
in a two car injury accident."

These statistics show a ten to one ratio of in-vehicle accident deaths between the least safe and most safe models of car.

The statistics show that for popular,
lightly built cars, occupants have a 6%-8% chance of death in a two car
accident. (e.g. BMW 3 series 6%, Subaru Impreza 8%, Honda Accord 6%).
Traditional "safety cars" such as the Volvos halve that chance (Volvo
700 4% incidence of death, Volvo 900 3%).

The Jeep Cherokee and the Toyota Land
Cruiser SUV have a 2% incidence of occupant death in actual crashes. However, in multiple-vehicle crashes SUVs are probably between three (Bicycle Safety Almanac) and six (International Injury & Fatality Statistics) times more likely to kill the occupant of the other vehicle (car, cyclist, or pedestrian) than cars.

Overall the four best vehicles to be in
are the Jaguar XJ series 1%, Mercedes-Benz S-Class / SEC 1%, Land Rover Defender 1% and Land Rover Discovery 1%.

Motorcyclist deaths within England and Wales stand at 53% of the annual road death statistics. Scooters/mopeds up to 50cc only account for 3% of those deaths. 2% of the scooter deaths
were 16-19 year olds who had not taken CBT (Compulsory Basic Training). (Statistics taken from 2004/2005 DSA annual road deaths percentages)

First fatality

The first fatality in a steam-driven vehicle may have been Mary Ward who on 31 August 1869 fell under a steam car in Ireland.

In the UK, the first person to die in a petrol-driven car collision was a pedestrian, Bridget Driscoll, in 1896. The first driver/passenger deaths occurred on 25 February 1899. A 6
HP Daimler, driven by thirty-one-year-old engineer Edwin Sewell,
crashed on Grove Hill, a steeply graded road on the northern slope of
Harrow on the Hill, Middle***, now in north-west London. A rear wheel collapsed after breaking its rim and the car hit a sturdy brick wall. Sewell was killed immediately when he and his passenger, a Major Richer, were thrown from the vehicle. Richer died 3 days later in hospital. The spot is now marked with a commemorative plaque.

Responsibility of car manufacturers

Car makers have been both accused of
making cars that go too fast, and praised for the safety measures (such as ABS) found in new models.

A number of books have critically
analysed the responsibility of car makers for safety. The most famous is probably Ralph Nader's Unsafe At Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of the American Automobile, and more recently Keith Bradsher's High and Mighty: the dangerous rise of SUVs (in Europe subtitled the world's most dangerous vehicles and how they got that way) has discussed popular concerns with the rise in popularity of the SUV.

Trends in collision statistics

Road toll figures show that car
collision fatalities have declined since 1980, with most countries
showing a reduction of roughly 50%. This drop appears to confirm the
efficacy of safety measures introduced thereafter, assuming that driver
behaviour has not changed significantly.

In the United States, fatalities have
increased slightly from 40,716 in 1994 to 42,884 in 2003. However, in
terms of fatalities per 100 million miles driven, the fatality rate has
dropped 16% between 1995 and 2005. Injuries dropped 37% over the same period. (National Traffic Safety Administration, 2006)

It has been noted that road fatality
trends closely follow the so-called "Smeed's law" (after RJ Smeed, its
author), an empirical rule relating injury rates to the two-thirds power
of car ownership levels.

Types of collisions

Car accidents fall into several major categories (whose names are self-explanatory):

Head-on collisions
Rear-end collisions
Side collisions
Rollovers
Single-vehicle collisions
Multi-vehicle collisions
Backup accidents
Level crossing accidents
Suicide

Collisions can occur with other
automobiles, other vehicles such as bicycles or trucks, with pedestrians
or large animals (such as moose), and with stationary structures or
objects, such as trees or road signs.

In a collision between two cars, the occupants of a car with the lower mass will likely suffer the greater consequences.

Legal consequences

Car collisions usually carry legal
consequences in proportion to the severity of the accident. Nearly all
common law jurisdictions impose some kind of requirement that parties
involved in a collision (even with only stationary property) must stop
at the scene, and exchange insurance or identification information or
summon the police. Failing to obey this requirement is referred to as
hit and run and is generally a criminal offence. Most car claims are
settled without using an attorney.

Parties involved in an accident may
face criminal liability, civil liability, or both. Usually, the state
starts a prosecution only if someone is severely injured or killed, or
if one of the drivers involved was clearly grossly negligent or
intoxicated or otherwise impaired at the time the accident occurred.
Charges might include driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs,
assault with a deadly weapon, manslaughter, or murder; penalties range
from fines to jail time to prison time to death (although the death
penalty is not applicable in many jurisdictions). It is notable that the
penalties for killing and injuring with motor vehicles are often very
much less than for other actions with similar outcomes.

As for civil liability, automobile
accident personal injury lawsuits have become the most common type of tort. Because these cases have been litigated often in the developed
First World nations, the legal questions usually have been answered in prior judgments. So, the courts most usually decide solely the factual questions of who is at fault, and how much they (or their insurer) must pay out in damages to the injured plaintiff.

Another element of liability involves the administrative fines or license suspension/revocation that may be imposed by civil or criminal authorities when a driver has violated the rules of the road and thus the terms of a driver's license. Such complaint may be filed by a police officer or sometimes by other witnesses of an incident.

Rubbernecking

Rubbernecking is where drivers slow
down to look at recent collisions or anything out of the ordinary on the
highway. Events ranging from gruesome car accidents to a police car
stopped on the shoulder can cause traffic jams on both sides of the
road, even if the roadway has been cleared.

Although caution is advised when there is unexpected activity on the side of a road, a car with a flat tire on the side of a highway often causes as much slow down as a real accident would due to rubbernecking. The slowdown in traffic persists even after
the accident scene has been cleared if traffic is dense. Traffic expertscall this phenomenon a phantom accident. This behaviour can potentiallycause additional and sometimes more serious accidents among the distracted rubberneckers.

Studies have shown some evidence of just how dramatically rubbernecking affects traffic flow, with estimates
[1] being as significant as every minute of actual congestion resulting
in 10 minutes of flow-on congestion. Such impact is readily observed inthe event of a crash on a major arterial route, where traffic backs up on both sides of the road at roughly equal rates.

Backup accidents

Backup accidents happen when a driver
reverses their car into an object, person, or another car. Although mostcars come equipped with rear view mirrors, which are adequate for detecting vehicles behind a car, they are inadequate on many
vehicles for detecting small children or objects close to the ground, which fall in the car's blind spot. Large trucks have much larger blind spots that can hide entire vehicles and large adults.

According to research by Kids and Cars –
an organization devoted to preventing (non-traffic) motor-vehicle-related deaths and injuries – 49% of the non-traffic,
non-crash fatalities involving children under 15 from 2001-2005 were
caused by vehicles backing up.

The CDC reported that from 2001-2003, an estimated 7,475 children (2,492 per year) under the age of 15 were treated for automobile back-over accidents.

In its “Deaths and Injuries Resulting from Certain Non-Traffic and Non-Crash Events,” report issued in May of 2004, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration found that back-up accidents most often:

Occur in residential driveways and parking lots
Involve sport utility vehicles (SUVs) or small trucks Occur when a parent, relative or someone known to the family is driving
Particularly affect children less than five years old
The driver of the car backing up and hitting an object, a person, or another car is usually considered to be at fault.

Prevention organizations suggest that
parents use common sense, and also take safety measures such as
installing cross view mirrors, audible collision detectors, rear view
video camera and/or some type of reverse backup sensors





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